Compendium Of Studies That Measure Learning Mindsets
Section 3: Purpose And Relevance

Table 1: Developmental Stage, Subject Area, and Representativeness of the Study Samples

 

Instructions: In the table below, each cell represents the number of studies with a particular demographic and measure type combination. Click the plus sign to the left to see the abridged citations for each study. Click the abridged citation to see more information about the sample size and demographics (or scroll down to see additional information about all the samples in Table 2).

National Representative

StudentsInstructorsCaregivers
Early ChildhoodElementary SchoolGrades 1-5Middle GradesGrades 6-8High SchoolGrades 9-12Two- or Four-Year College
STEM-specific beliefs about value 19192161
Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017)Peterson & Hyde (2017)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 3Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 2Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017)Kosovich, Hulleman, Barron, & Getty (2015)Guo, Marsh, Parker, Morin, & Yeung (2015)Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 1Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 2Conley (2012)Chouinard, Karsenti, & Roy (2007)Nagengast et al. (2011)Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) – Sample 1Peterson & Hyde (2017)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 3Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 2Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017)Harackiewicz, Rozek, Hulleman, & Hyde (2012)Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 1Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 2Chouinard, Karsenti, & Roy (2007)Anderson & Ward (2014)Perez, Cromley, & Kaplan (2015)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2018)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 1Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski, & Hyde (2016)Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 1aDiekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 3Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 2Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 1cDiekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 1bDiekman, Brown, Johnston, & Clark (2010)Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) – Study 1Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) – Study 3Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) – Study 2Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) – Study 1Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) – Study 3Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) – Study 2Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) – Sample 2
Beliefs about value 354
Gray, Mcelveen, Green, & Bryant (2020)Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014)Matthews (2014)Yeager et al. (2014)Gaspard et al. (2015)Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014)Matthews (2014)Gray (2017)Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) – Study 1Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) – Study 2Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) – Study 2Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) – Study 1

STEM-specific beliefs about value

Table 2: Compendium Studies: Sample Size and Demographics

 

Instructions: Use the arrows next to the column headers to sort this table. Press the gray buttons below to view more columns in the table. For example, clicking the button labeled ‘Latinx’ will add a column to Table 2 that is populated with the percentage of Latinx students in each study. Click a citation in the “Article” column to see more details about the study, including selected items, response scales, and the DOI where available (or click here to see additional information about all studies in Table 3). Articles with more than one distinct sample occupy multiple rows.

† Indicates one or more authors is affiliated with Student Experience Research Network as a scholar or an early career fellow or mentor.

Article N Developmental Stage Geographic Area Nationally Representative? Subject Area Asian Black Latinx Native American Hawaiian and/or Pacific Islander White Other First Generation College-goer Students with Disabilities Emerging multilingual learners Women and Girls Mother’s Highest Level of Education Family Economic Information School or Institution Composition
Yeager et al. (2014) 1,364 High School The United States General 5% 38% 48% 4% 57%
Nagengast et al. (2011) 398,750 High School International Yes STEM 51%
Gray, Mcelveen, Green, & Bryant (2020) 98 Middle Grades Southeast United States General 46% 34% 3% 5% 12%, predominantly biracial or multiracial 46% 90% + more received free or reduced-price lunch
Gaspard et al. (2015) 1,916 High School Germany General 54%
Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) - Sample 1 188 High School Wisconsin STEM 2% 1% 90% 7% Biracial or multiracial 48%
Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) - Sample 2 Caregivers Wisconsin STEM
Peterson & Hyde (2017) 288 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 1% 90% 9% Multiracial 49%
Perez, Cromley, & Kaplan (2015) 363 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 24% 11% 1% 45% 10% Indian subcontinent 5% Multiracial 3% Middle Eastern 2% Other 58% 30% of parents < High school diploma
Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014) 600 High School and Middle Grades New York General 38% 58% 1% Biracial <1% Other 43% 25% < High school 34% High school diploma 22% High school diploma plus some higher education 11% Associate's degree 6% Bachelor's Degree 2% Advanced degree
Matthews (2014) 330 High School and Middle Grades New York General 43% 56% <1% Biracial 22% < High school 35% High school diploma 28% High school diploma plus some higher education 8% Bachelor's degree 6% Advanced degree
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2018) 587 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 46% 15% 8% 24% 7% Multiracial or other 66%
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) - Study 1 858 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 69%
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) - Study 3 246 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 16% 72% 10% 10% 46%
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) - Study 2 284 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 15% 1% 82% 4% 50%
Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017) 361 Elementary School, High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 51% 55% of the sample had at least one parent with a college degree or higher
Kosovich, Hulleman, Barron, & Getty (2015) 401 Middle Grades Southeast United States STEM 4% 9% 31% 51% 5% 51%
Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) - Study 1 97 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 4% 4% 84% 70%
Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) - Study 2 357 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 4% 6% 84% 70%
Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) - Study 2 318 Two- or Four-Year College Wisconsin General
Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) - Study 1 107 Two- or Four-Year College Wisconsin General 3% 1% 4% 92% 53%
Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski, & Hyde (2016) 1,040 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 8% Underrepresented Minority 21% 60%
Harackiewicz, Rozek, Hulleman, & Hyde (2012) 188 High School The United States STEM 2% 1% 90% 7% Multiracial 47%

Avg household income = ≈$51,066 (above the US average)

Guo, Marsh, Parker, Morin, & Yeung (2015) ≈13,000 Middle Grades Hong Kong Yes STEM ≈50%
Gray (2017) 702 High School The United States General 4% 4% 2% 9% Asian/Pacific Islander 74% 10% Multiracial or other 45% 31% Free and reduced lunch

31% Free and reduced lunch

Eccles & Wigfield (1995) - Sample 1 742 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 49%
Eccles & Wigfield (1995) - Sample 2 575 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 1a 318 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 89% 66%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 3 241 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 86% 59%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 2 64 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 89% 58%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 1c 555 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 86% 63%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 1b 75 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 84% 45%
Diekman, Brown, Johnston, & Clark (2010) 333 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 87% 58%
Conley (2012) 1,870 Middle Grades California STEM 17% 2% 69% 2% 53%

56% Free and reduced lunch

Chouinard, Karsenti, & Roy (2007) 759 High School and Middle Grades Canada STEM 49%
Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) - Study 1 88 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 2% 1% 5% 92% 52%
Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) - Study 3 134 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 3% 1% 2% 94% 69%
Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) - Study 2 113 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 2% 3% 1% 94% 71%
Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) - Study 1 594 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 86% 63%
Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) - Study 3 452 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 20% 11% 9% 56% 63%
Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) - Study 2 256 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 64% 53%
Anderson & Ward (2014) 1,757 High School The United States Yes STEM 14% 27% 60% 48%

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