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This research snapshot provides an overview of a project led by Eric Grodsky and Patti Schaefer, funded through the SERN K-12 Teachers and Classrooms Research Portfolio. Drawing on a sample of 1,887 students and 60 teachers from five middle schools in the Madison Metropolitan School District, the study examines: (1) How is student sense of belonging distributed within and between middle school mathematics classes? (2) How is teacher mindset related to student sense of belonging, academic identity, and student success in middle school in general and mathematics classes in particular? and (3) How, if at all, does the relationship between belonging and achievement vary by student race and ethnicity?

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